The park has two major valley systems of the Kidepo and Narus Rivers. The valley floors lie between 910 m and 1,200 m above sea level. A Hot spring called Kanangarok lies north of the Park, near the South Sudan border. This Hot Spring is the main source of water in the park. The soils are mainly Clay; Kidepo Valley predominantly has black chalky clay and sandy-clay loam. The Narus Valley has freer-draining red clays and loams.
Kidepo Valley National Park’s climate is divided into two seasons; one short wet season, and a long dry season. The wet season runs between April and October whereas the dry season lasts for the rest of the Year. The park receives an annual average of 800 mm of rain. The dry spell is characterized by hot Easterly Monsoon Winds which cause a drought, and no green vegetation.
At this point temperatures can reach over 104 degrees Fanrenheit and average 86 degrees Fahrenheit. Water is scarce and only flowing during the wet season. However, all through the Year, the length of the Narus River Valley has surface water flowing and emerging at few permanent water points. The climate is between arid and semi-arid towards the Narus Valley, which is the only region of the park containing water during the dry season.
The park rises dramatically from 900-1200m above sea level on the border with Sudan, to 2750m above sea level. At the top of the forested mountains of Morungole and Zulia. It comprises of semi-arid plains enjoined with hills, rocky out crops and mountain ranges. Two great valley systems divide the park into almost two equal parts.
Most wildlife is found in the Narus Valley in the south and west of the park occupying one third of the park. The big wildlife numbers are triggered by the permanent availability of water. The Kidepo valley system in the east and north-east occupies the remaining two thirds of the entire park. Nyangea-Napore hills and Morungole and Zulia hill ranges hold the sources of most rivers in Karamoja, including River Nalakas and River Kidepo.